Setting up a wind turbine at home is an exercise as difficult from a technical point of view as it is administrative. Olivier Krug, manager of Krug, a company specializing in small wind turbines, tells us about the subject. Interview by Bérangère Larivaud.
What is the small wind turbine for?
A wind turbine is a converter: it converts wind energy into electrical energy. For an individual, a small wind turbine can generate electricity for the household consumption of the house. It can also be connected to the EDF network to resell the kWh produced.
What are the conditions for installing a small wind turbine on your property?
There needs to be enough wind, and there isn't everywhere. The most windy regions are the coasts of the Manche, Languedoc-Roussillon, Bouches-du-Rhône. There is also wind in the great plains of Picardy and Beauce, for example, and certain mountain regions. Otherwise, you have to go get the wind in height thanks to large masts. You also need to have enough space on your property. First, because it is sometimes worth placing your wind turbine 100 meters further to gain 2 or 3 meters in height. But also because it requires a large footprint: 4 by 4 meters for a lattice mast, and a square of 20 meters diagonal for a mast held by shrouds.
Do you need a building permit to install a micro wind turbine on your property?
For a wind turbine over 12 meters high, a building permit is required. We strongly encourage people to request it because below 12 meters there is not enough wind. Please note, however: some local authorities refuse to install wind turbines over 8 meters high. It is therefore necessary to obtain information from your municipality.
How much does a micro wind turbine cost?
For a wind turbine 20 to 24 meters high with 5 meters in diameter of propellers that can provide 7 to 8000 kWh per year for a home of 3 or 4 people in a house of 100 to 150 m², it takes between 25 and 35 000 euros, installation included. There is a tax credit of 50% on the supply, which makes it possible to recover up to € 8,000 for a couple. Certain regions such as Languedoc-Roussillon, Rhône-Alpes and Poitou-Charentes allocate subsidies in the range of 25 to 30% of total investment.
Is the small wind turbine financially profitable?
It is hardly profitable when you are connected to the network because the redemption price for kWh is low, or else you must be equipped with very good equipment and be located in a very windy region. On the other hand, the small wind turbine is very interesting when it is in an isolated site not connected to the EDF network because it makes it possible to supply electricity in sufficient quantity for the whole household and even more. It can also be combined with photovoltaic panels.
What is the procedure for equipping a micro wind turbine at home?
As far as we are concerned, we ask the person where the land is located to know if the installation of a micro wind turbine is possible or not. Then we do a preliminary study to establish a budget. If the budget is suitable, we move to the site to adjust the proposal and do a wind study. Sometimes we advise the person to move towards a more adequate energy. If all the parameters are met to be able to install a wind turbine, we insist that the person apply for a building permit, which will make it possible to install a tall wind turbine and therefore better capture the wind. It takes an average of 4 months to obtain it, but there is less than 5% of refusals. We take care of filling out the file for the person because it is quite complex.
Are there regulations concerning small wind turbines?
No, to date, there are no norms, standards, or regulations. So be careful with the wind turbines you want to sell, be wary of products less than 12 meters high on the pretext that there is no need for a building permit, and choose quality equipment if we don't want to see it deteriorate quickly. To know more : www.krugwind.com